The current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are unlike previous wars fought by the US in that the president traditionally has asked for public sacrifice, usually through increased taxes. However, Bush and Obama have not asked for Americans to pitch in, instead putting the billions per month onto the nation's "credit card". In the following post from Economist's View, Mark Thoma discusses congressman David Obey's Share the Sacrifice Act of 2010 that would add a 1% tax increase to a majority of American's federal income tax.
If people had to pay for the cost of the war with an explicit, dedicated tax for that purpose, would they still support it? I think it's a good idea to make clear what the war costs - e.g. the $11 billion per month the war effort costs would pay for a lot of health care and other domestic needs - but I'm not sure that raising taxes during a recession (or during the inklings of a recovery) is a good idea.
The economic effects of a tax increase are one of the worries, though the size of those effects depends upon where the burden falls. If the Bush tax cuts didn't do much to help middle and lower class income and employment -- and I don't see any strong evidence that they did -- it's hard to see how reversing such taxes would have much of an effect either. But the tax surcharge proposal is broad-based, everyone would face higher taxes not just the wealthy, and the effects of a broad-based tax change might be larger. Why take a chance when the job market doing so poorly?
The main worry for me is not the size of the debt or the economic consequences (though the latter is of concern), it's the political message that raising taxes right now would send. Raising taxes to pay for the war would send the message that the federal debt is such a large problem we have to implement a tax surcharge even while the economy is struggling to recover from a recession. That is the opposite of the message I think we should be sending -- the economy and labor markets still need more help -- and it's hard to imagine how to get that help after sending a message that the debt is so worrisome.
We do have debt problems down the road, and rising health care costs are the driving force behind the budget trajectory. We will need to address this problem. In addition, we should pay for the wars and the stimulus package when the economy is on better footing. Thus, I would support legislation that raises taxes (or cuts "wasteful" spending, though good luck with that) to pay for these items at some point in the future. That would highlight the cost of the war without simultaneously sending a message that the budget problem is urgent, so urgent that it ties our hands from doing anything more. It would also blunt the inevitable "tax increases will kill jobs" objection that is sure to come.
So yes, let's raise taxes now to pay for these things, but the tax changes shouldn't take effect until the economy surpasses some metric for health -- unemployment falling below a particular number could be one trigger -- or it could come at some date certain in the future, e.g. two years from now, (assuming that gives the economy enough time to regain more solid footing).
If I thought that the Obey tax surcharge plan would actually end the war, or stop it sooner, I might see this differently. But it seems to me that highlighting budget problems now would be more likely to affect funding for needed social programs such as food stamps and unemployment compensation than it would be to affect the war effort.
I'm curious to hear your thoughts on this:
Will the Obey Plan End the War?, by Bruce Bartlett, Commentary, Forbes: In recent years, Republicans have been characterized by two principal positions: They like starting wars and don't like paying for them. George W. Bush initiated two major wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, but adamantly refused to pay for either of them by cutting non-military spending or raising taxes. Indeed, at his behest, Congress actually cut taxes and established a massive new entitlement program, Medicare Part D.
Bush's actions were unprecedented. During every previous major war in American history, presidents demanded sacrifices from rich and poor alike. As Robert Hormats explains in his 2007 book, The Price of Liberty: Paying for America's Wars, "During most of America's wars, parochial desires--such as tax breaks for favored groups or generous spending for influential constituencies--have been sacrificed to the greater good. The president and both parties in Congress have come together … to cut nonessential spending and increase taxes."
During World War II, federal revenues roughly tripled as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the number of people paying income taxes expanded tenfold, from 3% of the population in 1939 to 30% by 1943. In 1940, a family of four needed close to $80,000 of income in today's dollars before it paid any federal income taxes at all. By the war's end, it saw its effective tax rate rise from 1.5% to 15.1%. (Today such a family only pays a federal income tax rate of about 6%.) But taxes weren't the only way the war was paid for. Spending on nondefense programs was cut almost in half, from 8.1% of GDP in 1940 to 4.4% in 1945.
See the rest of the article "Will the Obey Plan End the War?".
This post has been republished from Mark Thoma's blog, Economist's View.